Umayyad.Rashidun Caliphate at its
Umayyad Caliphate in Persia
It would be impossible in a history of Persia to ignore the importance of the Omayyad dynasty, which ruled the vast Muslim empire for almost a century. Muavia began his rule in Syria in A.h. 35 (656), and he became the caliph of the entire Muslim world after the abdication of Hasan in A.h. 40 (661), but only two years later he came into the possession of all the countries of the caliphate.
It was at this time that Ziad, Ali's governor of Pars, reconciled with him and presented himself under a safe leadership in Damascus, bringing all the arrears of revenue and an additional one million pieces as a gift. His remarkable ability secured the public recognition of his relationship with himself to the Caliph, and he was appointed governor of Basra, where he ruled the turbulent Arabs with an iron rod. Later, Kufa was added to his administration, and there he introduced a fright to crush conspiracies that remained ill for the future of the Omayyad dynasty. The Arab chroniclers say that no Viceroy ever enjoyed such powers as Ziad, who ruled from the Euphrates to the Indus and Jaxartes, and clothed a court similar to that of the Great King.
During the caliphate of Muavia the yoke of the Arabs was securely fixed in the east. Herat, published in A.h. Had rebelled. 41 (662), was stormed, and so Kabul was two years later. Ghazni, Balkh and Kandahar were visited by Muslim armies. In A.h. 54 (674) the Oxus was crossed and Bokhara captured, and in A.h. 56 (676) Samarcand fell upon the Muslims who strengthened their position to the Jaxartes in the north and the Indus in the south. In short, they succeeded Alexander the Great.
From Basra and Kufa, Ziad ruled Persia through his sons. The province of Khorasan, which at that time included the Muslim empire east of the Lut to the borders of India, was divided into four large districts with their centers in Nishapur, Merv, Herat and Balkh. Of these cities lies only the former in the borders of modern Iran. It was also at this time that Arab colonies were planted in Khorasan, whose traces still survive, although the Mongol invasions have destroyed their power. I myself often have small tribes of Arab tribes, and a regiment called the Arab Va Ajam is still being recruited in the Shahrud district.
In AH 65, the Kharijites, whose dark activity persistently invaded Persia, visited the tomb of Husayn at Kerbela, and lamented their desolation over his cause. They then fell into Syria, but were defeated and returned to Kufa. The following year, there were tribulations in Kufa, which ended in a massacre of all those who opposed Husayn. The Persians rejoice at the just retribution which fell upon Shimr, Amr, and other citizens, many of whom were put to death with torture; And because of the vigilance of Mukhtar, but few escaped. The heads of Amr and his son were sent to the Hanifite, which seemed to be only a tool of a clever intruder.
In a period of universal tyranny and oppression, when tyrants like Hajjaj represented the caliph, it is certain that the Persian people were treated worse than among the first four Caliphs who have consistently tried to secure justice and oppress tyranny and corruption. The inhabitants of Khorasan were decisively involved in the overthrow of the Omayyad dynasty. Among them, the abbasid agents found their most loyal followers, with the remarkable spectacle of a man who risked life and property to serve a man of a foreign race whom they had never seen and served with rare fidelity and devotion. It was this spirit that inspired the followers of the Black Standard, which enabled them to overcome the Arabs of Syria, who were so lukewarm for the caliph, thinking only their personal or at most their tribal interests. Consequently, in a certain sense, the victory won by the men of Khorasan can be seen as a sign of national awakening on the part of the oppressed Persians, who must have been aware that in all those who were made for civilization, they were their Arab masters Were superior.