The Pahlavi Dynasty and the Fall of the Monarchy
|Reza Shah Pahlavi|
At the end of the First World War, the British attempted to extend their control over southern Iran at a time when the Soviet troops were moving from the north. In February 1921, Sayyed Ziya od-Din and Reza Kban, a colonel of the Persian army, organized a coup to make Ziya od-Din Prime Minister. In October, Reza Khan took over the Premiership and in December 1925, Shah of Iran proclaimed himself and founded the Pahlavi dynasty.
Although Reza Shah reign (1925-1941) brought a certain economy development to the country and saw the repeal of the privileges granted to the foreign Powers, it was also marked by a tightening of police control of the people.
During the Second World War, Iran, which was officially adopted in 1934, declared itself neutral. After the Shah refusal to expel German nationals, British and Soviet troops entered the country in August 1941. A month later, Reza shah was forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammed Reza, but even at the end of the war, the problem of foreign intervention in Iran was far from solved. In 1951. Doctor Mossadegh, elected to the post of Prime Minister, decided to nationalize the oil industry The increasing popularity of his nationalist movement concerned not only the monarchists but also foreign powers with oil interests in Iran.In 1953 the government was overthrown by a coup d'etat. Nevertheless, the nationalization of oil became a symbol for the resumption of Iranian control over its own economy. In 1962, the Shah launched a series of reforms, called the White Revolution, mainly to the rural population, which formed the majority of the country, but the redistribution of land and the reforms in relation to the position of women aroused the rage of the great Owners and religious circles. The unrest broke out in 1963, and in November 1964 the Ayatollah Khomeini, who had become more and more critical of the government, was exiled to Turkey and then to Najaf in Iraq. The Savak, the political police, intensifies its activities, especially by clinging to the left, intellectuals and students.
The economic success shifted the domestic political problems facing the country to a secondary position: the huge revenues from the oil industry of 1973 allowed the Shah to carry out a huge program of industrial expansion, but this was criticized for being bad on extravagant and costly projects Concentrated on the immediate needs of the country Social issues were hardly addressed and the massive land runoff of the 19705 weakened the population in the poorer areas of large cities where unemployment was chronic.
In 1977, Iran had to face a sudden deterioration in the economic situation. The cost of living was dramatic, while a drop in oil sales between 1975 and 1977 forced the government to finance further social spending to finance construction projects and the purchase of armaments Situation benefited the opposition and demonstrations were organized in large cities, openly calling for the return from the exile of Ayatollah Khomeini. 1978 was marked by violent riots, especially in Tabriz, Qom and Tehran.On 7 September, in the month of Ramadan, there were calls for the abolition of the monarchy at a demonstration in Tehran, in which over a million people participated. Starting in October, strikes broke out across the country, crippled the administration and industry, and even exported oil exports, which was essential for the country's economy as a whole. In December, the Shah tried to save the situation by calling Shapur Bakhtiari Prime Minister On January 16, 1979, he was forced to flee with his family to Egypt. His departure was taken as an abdication from the crowds in the streets and greeted with great rejoicing.
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